How to Prepare Your Article

Readability

Ecosystem Health and Sustainability covers ecology, sustainability science, policy, decision making, and management. The readership of the journal includes scientists, resource managers, policymakers, educators, and other relevant groups and individuals. Therefore, the language used throughout the manuscript must be as clear and accessible as possible, even when tackling complex aspects of a subject. The following basic guidelines should be applied in manuscript preparation:

  • Choose commonly used words rather than complex technical terms;
  • Briefly and clearly explain policy and technical concepts/terms when they are first mentioned, especially where these relate to one country’s domestic policies;
  • Use active instead of passive voice;
  • Use shorter sentences rather than longer ones.

How to prepare your article

Allowable file formats:

  • Manuscript files in Word (.doc or .docx)
  • Tables in Word  (.doc or .docx, should be included in manuscript)
  • Figures/Images in TIFF, JPG, PDF, and EPS
  • Supplements for Ecological Archives can include, but are not limited to, original and derived data sets, source code for simulation models, and details of and software for unusual statistical analyses.

All submission need to be prepared with Cover letter, Manuscript, Appendices (if necessary) and Figures.

Cover letter

The cover letter is a paper summarizing why your paper should be published in EHS. It summarizes the research highlights, specifies the type of manuscript you are submitting, describes any prior interaction with ESA journals or other journals relating to the manuscript, suggests two or three potential Subject Editors from the list of EHS editors, and provides the names of four to six potential reviewers with their emails and areas of specialty for your manuscript.

Manuscript

  1. All manuscripts should be submitted in Microsoft Word format. Please keep the document simple (e.g., avoid linked or embedded objects, images, and other advanced word-processing features).
  2. Assemble the manuscript in the following order: Title Page (including the title, author’s/authors’ names, affiliations, corresponding author’s e-mail address), Abstract, Key words, Body of Article (generally including Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion sections), Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables, Figure Captions, and, if appropriate, Appendices (title, body of appendix, appendix tables, appendix figure legends). Appendices and Figures, each of them should be submitted in individual files.
  3. The manuscript should follow the length restriction of article types and the formatting requirement for different submission types as follows:
    • Research Article include Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, [Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions (optional)], Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables with Table Titles, Figure Legends. If it is necessary, authors may choose how to organize sections in brackets. Length limit: 7000 words (not including figures, tables, and references); length limit for the abstract: 250 words.
    • The suggested sections of a Critical Review include Title, Authors, Affiliations, Introduction, Summarization of Recent Developments, Perspectives, Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables with Table Titles, and Figure Legends. The section organization of the body of the article is flexible. Authors may choose how to organize it. Length limit: 8000 words (not including figures, tables, and references); length limit for the abstract: 250 words.
    • The suggested sections of a Comments or Reply include Title, Authors, Affiliations, Introduction, Body of Article, Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables with Table Titles, and Figure Legends. Length limit: 800 words (not including figures, tables, and references). No abstract necessary
    • The suggested sections of a Policy Forum article include Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Background, Analysis, Resolution or Perspectives, Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables with Table Titles, Figure Legends. Length limit: 2000 words; length limit for the abstract: 100 words.
    • The suggested sections of an International Collaboration Studies article include Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Progress and Perspectives, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, Literature Cited, Tables with Table Titles, and Figure Legends. Length limit: 3000 words (not including figures, tables, and references); length limit for the abstract: 250 words.
  4. Literature Cited
    Before submitting the final version of the manuscript, check each reference in the text against the citations in the Literature Cited section to see that they match exactly and that all references in text have a corresponding citation in the list and vice versa. Check that each citation has complete information. Failure to do so may result in charges for alterations in proof and may delay publication. Citations in Literature Cited section Use initials for authors’ and editors’ first names. For a list of more than 10 authors, use the first author’s name and initials, followed by “et al.” For institution names in place of author names, make sure that abbreviations in the citation match that in the reference in text (e.g., “USDA Forest Service” in both places, not spelled out in one and not the other). Journal names should be spelled out in full, not appear as abbreviations.
    Use the formats given below:

    • Journal article: author, date, title, journal name, volume, and pages, article number, or doi (note lack of ending punctuation with doi):
      Hargreaves, A. L., L. D. Harder, and S. D. Johnson. 2010. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata. Ecology 91:1693–1703.
      Sendzimir, J., C. P. Reij, and P. Magnuszewski. 2011. Rebuilding resilience in the Sahel: regreening in the Maradi and Zinder regions of Niger. Ecology and Society 16(3):1.
      Ferreira, V., B. Castagneyrol, J. Koricheva, V. Gulis, E. Chauvet, and M. A. Graça. 2014. A meta-analysis of the effects of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition in streams. Biological Reviews. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12125.
      Include a doi only if volume and page range/article numbers are not known.
    • Book: author, date, title, publisher (name, city, state, country); do not include the total number of pages in the book:
      Sokal, R., and F. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Third edition. W. H. Freeman, New York, New York, USA.
    • Article in book: author, date, title, pages, editor[s], book title, publisher (name, city, state, country): Witman, J. D., and P. K. Dayton. 2001. Rocky subtidal communities. Pages 339–366 in M. D. Bertness, S. D. Gaines, and M. E. Hay, editors. Marine community ecology. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
    • Article in proceedings of a conference or symposium: author, date, title, pages, editor (if available), conference or proceedings title, publisher (name, city, state, country). Tate, C. M., T. F. Cuffney, G. McMahon, E. M. P. Giddings, J. F. Coles, and H. Zappia. 2005. Use of an urban intensity index to assess urban effects on streams in three contrasting environmental settings. Pages 291–315 in L. R. Brown, R. M. Hughes, R. Gray, and M. R. Meador, editors. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. Symposium 47. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Wang, H. V., and R. S. Chapman. 1995. Application of vertical turbulence closure schemes in the Chesapeake Bay circulation model: a comparative study. Pages 283–297 in M. L. Spaulding and R. T. Cheng, editors. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, San Diego, California, October 26–28, 1995. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, USA.
    • Dissertation or thesis: author, date, title, Dissertation [for Ph.D.] or Thesis [for M.S., M.A.], university (name, city, state, country): Nelson, W. A. 2004. Competition in structured zooplankton populations: coupling population genetics and dynamics using theoretical and experimental approaches. Dissertation. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    • Government or institutional monograph [separate publication]: author, date, title, type and number of publication, publisher (agency or institution name, city, state, country): Graham, R. T., S. McCaffrey, and T. B. Jain. 2004. Science basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity. RMRS GTR-120. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    • Computer program: author, date, title, publisher (name, city, state, country): R Development Core Team. 2007. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. www.r-project.org SAS Institute. 2009. SAS version 9.2. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA. Oksanen, J., et al. 2011. vegan: community ecology package. Package version 2.0-2. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan
    • Documents that are published online: author, date, title, URL (note lack of ending punctuation). Spratt, J. 2002. A history of natural and anthropogenic fire disturbance in central Florida. Katharine Ordway Preserve, Melrose, Florida, USA. http://www.ordway.ufl.edu/firehist.htm
    • Data that has been archived and is associated with a published paper: author, date, title, URL (note lack of ending punctuation).
      Bruna, E. M., T. J. Izzo, B. D. Inouye, M. Uriarte, and H. L. Vasconcelos. 2011. Data from: Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens. PLoS ONE. Dryad Digital Repository http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.h6t7g
    • Work formally accepted, awaiting publication. Include in press at the end of citation if the year of publication is known or in place of the year of publication if it is unknown:
      Tylianakis, J. M., E. Laliberte, A. Nielsen, and J. Bascompte. In press. Conservation of species interaction networks. Biological Conservation. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon. 2009.12.004
      Turner, D. C. In press. The vampire bat: a field study in behavior and ecology. Revised edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.
      Travis, J. 1994. The vampire bat. In J. Smith, editor. Bats. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA, in press.

    Citation order
    Follow alphabetical order. Alphabetize names of first authors on a letter-by-letter basis; a particle, definite article, or preposition that is part of the name should precede the family name (e.g., van der Hoof). Alphabetize citations with multiple authors by the last names of second and succeeding authors.
    Two or more entries by the same author(s) should be ordered chronologically:

    • Smith, G. C. 1980.
    • Smith, G. C., S. T. Baker, and A. B. Jones. 1972.
    • Smith, G. C., S. T. Baker, and A. B. Jones. 1978.
    • Smith, G. C., and A. B. Jones. 1969.
  5. Space, margins and fonts
    The entire manuscript for submission must be double-spaced (text, literature cited, tables, figure captions) in 12-point Times New Roman font. Leave a 1-inch (2.4-cm) margin on all sides of each page. Do not justify the right margin.
  6. Page numbers
    Number all pages starting with the title page.
  7. Line numbers
    All pages of text should have line numbers.
  8. Footnotes
    Footnotes to text should be avoided; most footnote materials can be incorporated in the text.
  9. Symbols, abbreviations, acronyms
    Define all symbols, abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used.
  10. Statistical analysis
    • The assumptions and the model underlying any statistical analysis must be clearly stated, and the presentation of results must be sufficiently detailed. Sampling designs, experimental designs, data collection protocols, precision of measurements, sampling units, and sample sizes must be succinctly described
    • Reported statistics usually include the sample size and some measure of their precision (standard error [SE] or specified confidence interval [CI]) except where this would interfere with graphical clarity
    • The specific statistical procedure must always be stated.
    • If a software product was used, a complete citation should be given, including the version number.

    For more information, see “Guidelines for Statistical Analysis and Data Presentation (http://esapubs.org/esapubs/statistics.htm)” prepared by the Statistical Ecology Section of ESA.

  11. Italics
    Italicize scientific names and the symbols for all variables and constants except Greek letters. Symbols should be italic in the illustrations to match the text. Italics should rarely be used for emphasis.

Figures

Figures must be prepared and submitted as individual files that are clearly labeled. The acceptable figure types are TIFF, JPG, PDF, or EPS format. All figures should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text. Authors are strongly encouraged to illustrate their articles with high-quality color photographs and graphics to attract the reader’s attention and to complement and clarify the text. However, if you wish to reproduce any previously published images, permission must be obtained from the original publisher, prior to final acceptance of the manuscript for publication in EHS.

Appendices and Supplements

Generally, an appendix is material for viewing and a supplement is a material for downloading and using. Appendices and Supplements both will be published in Ecological Archives. Appendices typically consist of tables, figures, and descriptive text. Supplements can include, but are not limited to, original and derived data sets, source code for simulation models, and details of and software for unusual statistical analyses. Detailed information and instructions for file preparation are available online at: http://esapubs.org/archive.