Instructions for Accepted Article

Instructions for Accepted Article

Ecosystem Health and Sustainability

Manuscript Organization

All manuscripts should include page numbers. Manuscripts should begin with the ordered sections:

and end with the sections of:

Figures should not be included in the main manuscript file. Each figure must be prepared and submitted as an individual file. Find more information about preparing figures here.

The title, authors, and affiliations should all be included on a title page as the first page of the manuscript file.

There are no explicit requirements for section organization between these beginning and ending sections. Articles may be organized in different ways and with different section titles, according to the authors’ preference. In most cases, internal sections include:

  • Materials and Methods
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions (optional)

EHS has no specific requirements for the order of these sections, and in some cases it may be appropriate to combine sections. Guidelines for individual sections can be found below.

Standardized nomenclature should be used as appropriate, including appropriate usage of species names and SI units.

EHS articles do not support text footnotes. If your accepted submission contains footnotes, move that material into either the main text or the reference list, depending on the content.

1. Manuscript File Requirements

Authors may submit their manuscript files in Word (as .doc or .docx), LaTeX, or RTF format. Word files must not be protected.Embedded graphic objects, such as shapes and brackets used to group data sets, cannot be typeset.Do not use Word’s hidden text feature to remove text from a manuscript. The hidden text will remain within the encoding of the document and will be typeset. If you do not wish for pieces of text to be typeset, the text must be deleted entirely from the manuscript file prior to submission. Make sure you have accepted all changes, turned off track changes, and deleted any comments.

All papers must be in English. Use American spellings (e.g., behavior, not behaviour).

The entire manuscript must be double-spaced (text, literature cited, tables, figure legends, etc.) at three lines per inch (12 lines/10 cm), with a 1-inch margin on all sides. Use 12-point
Times or Times New Roman font. Do not hyphenate words at the right margin or justify the right margin. Remove line numbers.
Distinguish between similar-looking but disparate symbols such as the letter “x,” a multiplication sign, and a Greek chi, or hyphens, minus signs, en dashes, and em dashes. Use word processor special characters from the Word character palette (i.e., “Insert Symbol”). Do not try to approximate the look of certain characters by creating your own symbol (e.g., a superscript “o” will translate as a superscript letter “o,” not a degree sign).

Do not use the small caps feature in Word or all capital letters in different type sizes to achieve small caps.

Microsoft Word Submissions with Equations. If your manuscript is or will be in Microsoft Word and contains equations, you must follow the instructions below to make sure that your equations are editable when the file enters production.

  1. Format display equations only in MathType (
  2. Do not use Equations tools for any equation formatting. For inline math, use Times New Roman or Symbol fonts. If your inline equations require special formatting not available in Times New Roman or Symbol fonts, use MathType.
  3. Do not use Graphic Objects.

If you have already composed your article in Microsoft Word and used its built-in equation editing tool, your equations will become unusable during the typesetting process. To resolve this problem, re-key your equations using MathType.

If you do not follow these instructions, ESA will not be able to use your file.

For general conventions used in ESA journals, see Conventions.

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2. Guidelines for Standard Sections


Accepted manuscripts must be submitted with both a full title and a short title, which will appear at the top of the PDF upon publication if accepted.

The full title must be 120 characters or fewer, including spaces. Avoid abbreviations if possible. References to taxonomic authorities should not appear in the title.

The short title must be 40 characters or fewer and should state the topic of the paper.

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 Authors and Affiliations 

All author names should be listed in the following order:

  • First names (or initials, if used),
  • Middle names (or initials, if used), and
  • Last names (surname, family name)

Authors’ names should appear below the title in continuous lines. For more than two authors, use a series comma and “and” between the last two authors’ names.

Affiliations should be listed completely; DO NOT USE ABBREVIATIONS FOR INSTITUTIONS. Include postal codes of institutions. If there is a single address for all authors, it should appear immediately below authors’ names. If authors have different addresses, key authors to addresses using superscripted numbers.

Corresponding author:One author (and only one author) should be designated as the corresponding author, and his or her email address or other contact information should be included on the manuscript cover page. This information will be published with the article if accepted.

Note, however, that a corresponding author during the production of the article does not need to be the same as that after publication. In this case, enter the corresponding author’s information in EcoTrack for that during production; the corresponding author after publication should be listed on the title page.

Footnotes: Footnotes are used for the corresponding author’s e-mail address and any present addresses of any author. Provide only the corresponding author’s e-mail address. (A present address is one that is different from the affiliation at the time the work reported in the paper was performed.) These footnotes should be keyed to individual author’s names in numerical order following the last number of the author affiliation addresses. Do not use Word’s footnote or endnote features to create this text. Set the text for these footnotes on the title page below the author affiliations, before the abstract. The typesetting system will set the text in the correct placement.

Other information: Information regarding contribution numbers, recognition of specific author contributions to the work reported, or dedications should appear in the acknowledgments section, not as footnotes on the title page.

See ESA Requirements for Submission for information regarding ESA’s Code of Ethics, the Data Policy and more.


See for guidelines regarding abstract length according to article type. The abstract should:

  • explain to the general reader why the research was done and why the results should be viewed as important
  • include very brief statements of the purpose of the research, the methods used, scientific names of the organisms studied, results, and significant conclusions
  • contain descriptions of the experiment in the past tense

Abstracts should not include:

  • references to taxonomic authorities and statistical results (e.g., P values, R2 values)
  • references to literature citations
  • abbreviations, if possible
  • footnotes

 Key words 

  • There should be no more than 12 key words or phrases.
  • All items should appear in alphabetical order and should be run in as a paragraph.
  • Items should be separated by semicolons, with a period after the last item.
  • Key words should include full, unabbreviated genus and species names of the focal species.
  • Key words should include geographic information.

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  • Describe the paper’s significance in a way that makes sense to readers outside the field.
  • State the reason for doing the research, the nature of the questions or hypotheses under consideration, and essential background.
  • Include a brief review of the literature

 Materials and Methods 

  • Provide sufficient information to allow other investigators to repeat your work. A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures, and statistical procedures is especially important.
  • Do not describe commonplace statistical tests in Methods, but allude to them briefly in Results.
  • If you list a product (e.g., animal food, analytical device), supply the name and location of the manufacturer. Give the model number for equipment specified.
  • Supply complete citations, including author (or editor), title, year, publisher and version number, for computer software mentioned in your article.
  • This section may be further divided into subsections, each with a subheading, as appropriate.

 Results, Discussion, and Conclusions 

  • These sections may be presented as three separate sections, or may be combined (i.e., Results and Discussion or Discussion and Conclusions). These sections may be further divided into subsections, each with a subheading, as appropriate.
  • Results generally should be stated concisely and without interpretation, though in complex studies modest interpretation of individual parts can provide context helpful for understanding subsequent parts.
  • The Discussion should explain the significance of the results. Distinguish factual results from speculation and interpretation.
  • Discussion or Conclusion should explain how the results relate to the hypotheses presented in Introduction.
  • Avoid excessive review.
  • Conclusions should describe the conclusions that can be drawn from the study and discuss future directions for research.

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Acknowledgments, including funding information, should appear in a brief statement at the end of the body of the text. This is also the place for statements about authors’ relative contributions to the work.
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 Literature Cited 

Before submitting the final version of the manuscript, check each reference in the text against the citations in the Literature Cited section to see that they match exactly and that all references in text have a corresponding citation in the list and vice versa. Check that each citation has complete information. Failure to do so may result in charges for alterations in proof and may delay publication.   Citations in Literature Cited section Use initials for authors’ and editors’ first names. For a list of more than 10 authors, use the first author’s name and initials, followed by “et al.” For institution names in place of author names, make sure that abbreviations in the citation match that in the reference in text (e.g., “USDA Forest Service” in both places, not spelled out in one and not the other). Journal names should be spelled out in full, not appear as abbreviations.

Use the formats given below:

  1. Journal article: author, date, title, journal name, volume, and pages, article number, or doi (note lack of ending punctuation with doi):
    Hargreaves, A. L., L. D. Harder, and S. D. Johnson. 2010. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata. Ecology 91:1693–1703.
    Sendzimir, J., C. P. Reij, and P. Magnuszewski. 2011. Rebuilding resilience in the Sahel: regreening in the Maradi and Zinder regions of Niger. Ecology and Society 16(3):1.
    Ferreira, V., B. Castagneyrol, J. Koricheva, V. Gulis, E. Chauvet, and M. A. Graça. 2014. A meta-analysis of the effects of nutrient enrichment on litter decomposition in streams. Biological Reviews.
    Include a doi only if volume and page range/article numbers are not known.
  2. Book: author, date, title, publisher (name, city, state, country); do not include the total number of pages in the book:
    Sokal, R., and F. Rohlf. 1995. Biometry: the principles and practice of statistics in biological research. Third edition. W. H. Freeman, New York, New York, USA.
  3. Article in book: author, date, title, pages, editor[s], book title, publisher (name, city, state, country): Witman, J. D., and P. K. Dayton. 2001. Rocky subtidal communities. Pages 339–366 in M. D. Bertness, S. D. Gaines, and M. E. Hay, editors. Marine community ecology. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
  4. Article in proceedings of a conference or symposium: author, date, title, pages, editor (if available), conference or proceedings title, publisher (name, city, state, country).   Tate, C. M., T. F. Cuffney, G. McMahon, E. M. P. Giddings, J. F. Coles, and H. Zappia. 2005. Use of an urban intensity index to assess urban effects on streams in three contrasting environmental settings. Pages 291–315 in L. R. Brown, R. M. Hughes, R. Gray, and M. R. Meador, editors. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems. Symposium 47. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Wang, H. V., and R. S. Chapman. 1995. Application of vertical turbulence closure schemes in the Chesapeake Bay circulation model: a comparative study. Pages 283–297 in M. L. Spaulding and R. T. Cheng, editors. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, San Diego, California, October 26–28, 1995. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, New York, USA.
  5. Dissertation or thesis: author, date, title, Dissertation [for Ph.D.] or Thesis [for M.S., M.A.], university (name, city, state, country): Nelson, W. A. 2004. Competition in structured zooplankton populations: coupling population genetics and dynamics using theoretical and experimental approaches. Dissertation. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
  6. Government or institutional monograph [separate publication]: author, date, title, type and number of publication, publisher (agency or institution name, city, state, country): Graham, R. T., S. McCaffrey, and T. B. Jain. 2004. Science basis for changing forest structure to modify wildfire behavior and severity. RMRS GTR-120. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
  7. Computer program: author, date, title, publisher (name, city, state, country): R Development Core Team. 2007. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. SAS Institute. 2009. SAS version 9.2. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA. Oksanen, J., et al. 2011. vegan: community ecology package. Package version 2.0-2.
  8. Documents that are published online: author, date, title, URL (note lack of ending punctuation). Spratt, J. 2002. A history of natural and anthropogenic fire disturbance in central Florida. Katharine Ordway Preserve, Melrose, Florida, USA.
  9. Data that has been archived and is associated with a published paper: author, date, title, URL (note lack of ending punctuation).
    Bruna, E. M., T. J. Izzo, B. D. Inouye, M. Uriarte, and H. L. Vasconcelos. 2011. Data from: Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens. PLoS ONE. Dryad Digital Repository
  10. Work formally accepted, awaiting publication. Include in press at the end of citation if the year of publication is known or in place of the year of publication if it is unknown:
    Tylianakis, J. M., E. Laliberte, A. Nielsen, and J. Bascompte. In press. Conservation of species interaction networks. Biological Conservation. 2009.12.004
    Turner, D. C. In press. The vampire bat: a field study in behavior and ecology. Revised edition. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Travis, J. 1994. The vampire bat. In J. Smith, editor. Bats. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA, in press.

Citation order

Follow alphabetical order. Alphabetize names of first authors on a letter-by-letter basis; a particle, definite article, or preposition that is part of the name should precede the family name (e.g., van der Hoof). Alphabetize citations with multiple authors by the last names of second and succeeding authors.
Two or more entries by the same author(s) should be ordered chronologically:

  • Smith, G. C. 1980.
  • Smith, G. C., S. T. Baker, and A. B. Jones. 1972.
  • Smith, G. C., S. T. Baker, and A. B. Jones. 1978.
  • Smith, G. C., and A. B. Jones. 1969.

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 Supplemental Material 

Appendices and supplemental material for articles are published in digital form in Ecological Archives.
Unless otherwise requested and approved by the Subject Editor and the Managing Editor, appendices will be published exclusively in digital form. Never state “available from the author upon request”; all such material should be submitted for inclusion in Ecological Archives.
For purposes of Ecological Archives, appendices are defined as directly viewable (or executable in the case of sound or video clips) with a standard web browser and should be fully understandable by referring to the legend and the original paper. The ability to publish digital appendices allows authors to make available substantial amounts of supporting material in formats such as tables, graphs, and photographs as separate, citable entities. Supplements will more typically resemble raw data with appropriate metadata. In the case of supplements, only the metadata will be consistently formatted to optimize viewing with a web browser; the supplements per se will be formatted to maximize ease of further use or analysis. Supplements could include, but are not limited to, original and derived data sets, source code for simulation models, and details of and software for unusual statistical analyses. Authors are encouraged to submit supplements that allow validation of analyses already conducted, as well as new analyses of their original data. Separate detailed instructions are available on preparation of materials for Ecological Archives.

Data Registry

In addition, all authors are encouraged to register their data at DRYAD at or another appropriate Data Registry.

In the manuscript

List appendices and supplements first, followed by statements about data availability, e.g., Supplemental Material Ecological Archives Appendices A–C [or “The Appendix is”] and a supplement are available online: Data Availability Data associated with this paper have been deposited in XXXXXXX:
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 Figure Captions 

  • Figures should be numbered in the order in which they are discussed in the text. All figures much be mentioned in the text.
  • The figure title (i.e., Fig. 1) should be given as the beginning of the caption.
  • Figure captions should tell what the figure is about, without simply repeating the axis labels.
  • All variable abbreviations, symbols, and acronyms must be identified and appear in the same form in text, tables, and figures. To avoid repetition, refer back to a previous figure or table (e.g., “Symbols are as in Fig. 1.”).
  • Include full species names and geographic information where appropriate.
  • Data numbers that have been logarithmically transformed (scale divisions are uniform) do not have units. The original units should be included in the figure legend, e.g., “Original data were in meters.” Data that are simply plotted on a logarithmic scale (scale divisions are logarithmically [unevenly] spaced) are still the raw data and should have units.
  • In the figure caption, refer to panels or parts of the figure within parentheses, e.g., “Fig. 1. Mouse density for (A) site 1 and (B) site 2.”
  • In the figure caption, describe symbols in words rather than using the symbols themselves, e.g., “solid diamonds identify mice in 2002; open diamonds identify mice in 2003.” For nonstandard and “indescribable” symbols, use a key containing the symbols in the figure itself.
  • It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission to reprint from the copyright holder (usually the publisher) of any material used in figures that has been published previously. Photo (or artistic) credit should appear in the caption for any photo taken (or illustration done) by someone other than an author of the paper.

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Electronic file formats

All figure files should be in eps, pdf, tiff, or jpeg format, or embedded in Word or PowerPoint. See below for sizing. Low-resolution figure files will not be suitable for publication. Thus, we may require new versions of figures for the final version of an accepted manuscript.


There should only be one figure on each page. The resolution should be 600 dpi (dots per inch). If you make tiff files, please use the “LZW compression” option when saving the files. That will significantly reduce the file size, without adversely affecting the image quality.

Type guidelines for figures

Most figures will be reduced to single-column width in the journal (76 mm, 3 inches, or 18 picas) and should be completely legible at that size. After reduction, all lettering should be no smaller than a 6-point font size.Sans serif fonts such as Helvetica or Arial are preferred.Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure should match those used in the text and tables.Use italics only as used in the text (e.g., variables, species names). All Greek letters should be set upright (not italic).

Lines and fills

Axis lines, tick marks, error bars, etc. should be thick enough to survive reduction to final publication size (at least 1 point wide, following reduction). Anything smaller is likely to fade out. Tick marks also need to be long enough to show up when reduced. Fills should be sufficiently different so they can be distinguished upon reduction.

Figure style recommendations

Keep blank space to a minimum by placing axis labels near the axes, multiple panels close together, and “outlier” information (compass directions, scale bars, keys) within the margins of the figure.
The y-axis should be for the dependent variable and the x-axis should be for the independent variable, especially in regressions.
All lines, symbols, fills, and colors should be distinguishable at the size at which the figure will be posted online in paged PDF form and the meanings should be identified in the figure caption or in a key within the figure panel. Fills should be simple and not cluttered; gray shadings are preferable to busy, tiny patterns. (Grayscale should be achieved using grayscale mode, not bitmap.)
Axes and lines should be no smaller than 0.5 points and no larger than 1.5 points.
Axes should have tick marks and axis numbers or labels. Tick labeling should align with ticks. Data should not extend beyond the last numbered tick mark on an axis.
The same font (Arial is preferred) should be used throughout all the figures.
All axes should be labeled, with units in parentheses as appropriate, e.g., “Mouse density, M (no./m2)”; note that variable abbreviations do not appear in parentheses. Greek symbols should appear in upright, non-italic form. Labels should make sense to the reader without reference to the text of the paper.
Place the y-axis label to the left of the axis and orient it to read sideways from bottom to top of the graph.
Italics should be used only for scientific names or for one-letter variable abbreviations.
All figures should be numbered in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
Only one key is necessary in a multipart figure if the same key applies to all parts.
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Authors are encouraged to also read instructions for preparation of tables found at

Critical requirements of table formatting

All tables must be mentioned in text in numerical order.
Each table should fit on an 8.5″ ´ 11″ page in portrait view in 10-point type, width-wise. Tables may run to subsequent pages in the vertical direction only. Wider tables (those that fit only on a landscape-oriented page) or tables with sections with varying numbers of columns must be divided into separate tables by the author (i.e., tables must have the same number of columns from the first row after the headings to the bottom row of the entire table). Authors should consider whether the data in the table are necessary in that form and whether the same information is provided in a figure or elsewhere in the text.
Tables must be in editable form, i.e., created by using the “Insert Table” function in Word, rather than using tabs or spaces. PDF files, Excel files, or tables inserted as graphics cannot be used for typesetting.
Each table should contain only one set of column headings (i.e., there should not be different column headings within the body of the table). Every column must be labeled. Each column heading should appear completely in its own table cell; do not break column headings by creating additional rows or splitting cells.
Do not use shading or colors.
Do not use blank rows or columns or returns within cells or expand rows to indicate spacing.
Do not split cells to indicate indented text.
Do not use keyboard spaces to align items in a column. Do not place table captions or footnotes within a cell in the formatted table.
Spanner headings should be used to group columns. Use “Merge cells” in Word’s table menu to create spanner heading cells. Horizontal (never vertical) side headings may be used to group rows. Use em spaces (from “Insert symbol” menu, “Special characters”) to indent items in groupings under side headings.
Open or closed parentheses, square brackets, or curly brackets should never be used within tables to indicate association between rows.
Properly formatted table below
Note that the heading for column 1 is in a cell merged from two cells; the spanner headings are centered above their respective column headings; em-spaces are used to indicate subheading order; values (e.g., mean ± SE) appear together in one cell; ellipses are used to indicate “no data.”
To see paragraph marks (hard returns) and hidden formatting symbols (such as em spaces and word spaces) in Word, click on the “¶” sign in the “Paragraph” menu.
Table 1. This is a properly formatted table. Text texttexttexttexttexttexttexttext.¶

Heading¤ Spanner heading¤ Spanner heading¤
Heading (unit)†¤ Heading (unit)‡¤ Heading (unit)¤ Heading (%)¤
Side heading¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
○Subheading¤ …¤ …¤ 0.125¤ 98¤
○○Subheading with more text all in one cell¤ 0.001 ± 0.0001¤ 0.001¤ 0.125¤ …¤
Side heading¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
○Subheading¤ 0.002 ± 0.0001¤ 0.003¤ 0.004¤ 35¤
○○Subheading¤ 0.0005 ± 0.0001¤ 0.0006¤ 0.0007¤ 16¤

Note: Text texttexttexttexttexttext.¶
† Footnote text texttexttext.¶
‡ Footnote text texttext.¶

See the next page for an improperly formatted table.
Improperly formatted table Note the extra-long caption placed in a table cell; the lack of heading for the first column, the improperly broken headings; the use of curly brackets to combine information; different types of values within a column; values (e.g., mean ± SE) in separate cells; the new set of headings in the body of the table, changing the type of data in the table; centering created using the space bar; the units (%) repeated in each cell; spacing created with blank rows and columns.

¤ Table 1. This is an improperly formatted table. Text texttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttexttextte
¤        Heading¤ ¤    Heading¤        Heading¤    Heading¤
Heading that¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ }45¶ }45¤
••runs to two cells¤ 45%¤ ¤ 67¤ ±¤ 0.23¤ 45¤
•Improperly indented heading¤ 65%¤ ¤ 78¤ 35¤
••Improperly¶ •••••indented¶ •••••heading¤ 6%¤ ¤ 98¤ 15¤
heading¤ 86%¤ ¤ 65¤ 54¤
heading¤ 98%¤ ¤ 56¤ 45¤
Heading¶ that is broken¶ with hard returns¤ 65%¤ ¤ 87¤ 98¤ ¤
¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
Heading¤ ••••Heading¤ ¤ •••••Heading¤ •••••••Heading¤ ¤
Site 1¤ coarse¤ ¤ gray¤ ¶ ¶ green¤ ¤
•••••2¤ fine¤ ¤ brown¤ ¤
•••••3¤ fine¤ ¤ yellow¤ ¤
coarse¤ ¤ green¤ ¤
Vertical heading¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
coarse¤ ¤ •••••gray¤ …¤ ¤
fine¤ ¤ •••••brown¤ …¤ ¤
fine¤ ¤ •••••yellow¤ —¤ ¤
coarse¤ ¤ •••••green¤ …¤ ¤
¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤ ¤
¤ Notes: Text texttexttexttexttext. ¤


Table captions should not be more than one sentence long and should tell what the table is about, without simply repeating the column heads.
It is preferable to format a table so that data may be compared within columns rather than across rows (i.e., rows are independent variables, columns are dependent variables).
Every column and row should be labeled. The labels should apply to everything in that row or column (i.e., do not combine different types of data within a cell; use separate rows or columns for different types of data).
Units should appear in headings in parentheses, not repeated within each data cell, e.g., “Mouse density, M (no./m2).” When units apply to the entire table, they may appear in the table caption or in the Notes section below the table. Present the same number of decimal places in each cell of a column. Use leading zeroes, e.g., “0.3” instead of “.3”.
Significant differences may be identified by superscripted uppercase letters. If error measurements are presented, these letters should be superscripted after the mean, not after the error (i.e., 32A ± 1.3, 30A,B ± 1.0, 29B ± 0.7).

Tables Notes section

Information, including descriptions of the methods used for obtaining/arranging the data and statistical analyses, should be placed in a “Note” below the bottom rule of the table and before any footnotes. Notes should not be placed in a cell within the formatted table. The word “Note” (for a single sentence) or “Notes” should appear in italics, followed by a colon, with a paragraph indent before it.
The meaning of blank cells in tables should be explained in the Notes section.
Symbols, ellipses, and abbreviations should all be defined in the Notes section and abbreviations should be exactly as those used in the text. To avoid repetition in tables and figures, refer the reader back to a previous figure or table (e.g., “Symbols are as in Fig. 1.”).
To include more than three or four literature sources for a table, the sources can be identified by Arabic numbers in the table in a column headed “Source” and the key to literature references may appear in the table Notes section, e.g., “Sources are: 1, Smith (1996); 2, Jones (1984); 3, Van Buren (2006).”

Table footnotes

ESA journal style prefers the following footnote symbols in this order: †, ‡, §, ¶, #, ||, and then doubled symbols. Footnote symbols are ordered by first occurrence within the table, assuming that tables are read across each row from top to bottom (i.e., any occurrence in the first row precedes any occurrence in the next row, including row headings). Authors should ensure that footnote symbols within the table match those below the Notes section.
Levels of significance should be expressed as *P < 0.05, **P< 0.01, ***P < 0.001. Use asterisks only for this application.
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Identification of the objects of study

Early in the manuscript, identify the type(s) of organism or ecosystem you studied; e.g., “Cornusflorida L. (flowering dogwood), a small deciduous tree.” Avoid descriptive terms that may be familiar only to specialists. Provide the scientific names of all organisms. Common names may be used when convenient after stating the scientific names.
Genus names must be spelled out the first time they are used, but may be abbreviated to a single letter thereafter if no confusion will result. If the article contains several different scientific names, it is a good idea to spell out the generic name the first time it appears in each major section. Species names must always be spelled out in text; space limitations in tables or figures may require use of a “code,” such as the first letter of the genus and species name; these letters should be in italics, like the original scientific name.
Check carefully the spelling of all scientific nomenclature. Because usage of scientific names may vary between investigators and can be ambiguous when out of context, conformance to a comprehensive nomenclatural standard is highly desirable. Suggestions for nomenclature standards are available for commonly studied groups.

Statistical analyses and data presentation

Authors are free to interpret statistical analyses as they see fit. The author, however, needs to provide the reader with information sufficient for an independent assessment of the analysis. Thus, the assumptions and the model underlying any statistical analysis must be clearly stated, and the presentation of results must be sufficiently detailed. Sampling designs, experimental designs, data-collection protocols, precision of measurements, sampling units, and sample sizes must be succinctly described. Reported statistics usually include the sample size and some measure of their precision (standard error [SE] or specified confidence interval [CI]) except where this would interfere with graphical clarity. The specific statistical procedure must always be stated. Unusual statistical procedures need to be explained in sufficient detail, including references if appropriate, for the reader to reconstruct the analysis. If a software product was used, complete citation should be given, including version number. When reporting results, actual P values are preferred. For more information consult the guidelines on “Statistical analysis and data presentation” prepared by the Statistical Ecology Section of ESA.
Any novel computer code used for models, simulations, or statistical analyses reported in the manuscript must be described. Such code must be part of the submission and will become a permanently archived Supplement to an accepted manuscript. Computer code should be sufficiently documented so that reviewers and readers can reconstruct simulations, models or analyses as reported in the submission and ultimate publication. Executable code is not sufficient; source code must be provided. Sufficient metadata should accompany the code so that others can readily use the files and interpret output. Such metadata can usually be provided in a short text file.


Units of measure should conform to the International System of Units (SI). If measurements were made in other units, include the SI equivalents.
Consult Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (ASTM Standard E-380-93) for guidance on unit conversions, style and usage. When preparing text and figures, note in particular that SI requires the use of the terms mass or force rather than weight. When one unit appears in a denominator, use the solidus (e.g., g/m2); for two or more units in a denominator, use negative exponents (e.g., g∙m-2∙d−1). Use a capital L as the symbol for liter.
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